Appeal to nature

“If it’s natural/organic, it’s good. If it’s chemical/synthetic, it’s bad”


You already heard that.

Let’s do this very quickly.

“If it’s natural/organic, it’s good” : In this sentence, we can define good as an ethnocentrism, so we will accept it as “good for survival or comfort of any human kind” and we can also define “natural/organic” as “anything that is untouched from Humanity”

With these two definitions, we can easily counter this argument : diseases are natural. It’s not good for you.

“If it’s chemical/synthetic, it’s bad” : “Chemical/synthetic”, in this sentence, is referenced as the opposite of “natural”.
Firstly, it’s highly probable that nothing remains untouched by Humanity. (1)
Secondly, both synthetic and natural chemicals can be bad or good.
Thirdly, most of the time, a synthetic chemical is exactly the same as a natural chemical (2)

It’s a very common sophism, that you can now avoid and counter.

Join us ! Facebook / Twitter
_____________

References

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHc-xz1yNUs – by DirtyBiology [Léo Grasset] (1)
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/natural-vs-synthetic-chemicals-is-a-gray-matter/ – by Dorea Reeser (2)

To go further :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_nature
https://www.psychreg.org/why-we-prefer-natural/

Correlation or causality ?

Definitions :

Correlation :
Statistical tool used to measure the strength of a relationship between two (or more) variables.

A correlation can be :
– a coincidence.
Example : antibiotic consumption rate in United States correlated with violence in Bulgaria.

– caused by an other variable :
Examples :
– A and B are both affected by C.
– excellent grades in High school (A) and excellent grades in University (B) are both affected by continuously hard working (C).

– a negative correlation :
Example :
– when A increases then B decreases.

– a positive correlation :
Example :
– when A increases then B increases.

__________________________
Causality :
Relation between a cause and it’s effect.
Examples :
– A causes B.
– On Earth, dropping an object (A) causes it to fall (B).


Sophism :

We often say “correlation doesn’t imply causality“, which means that most of correlations won’t be a cause-effect matter, and so, won’t imply a causality.
Cum hoc ergo propter hoc is very common sophism in which a correlation is mistook as a causality, this leads to huge mistakes in thinking and establishing conclusion.
It can be also used as a manipulation, “correlation” or “causality” have to be used very carefully.
A correlation is only a statistical tool and is not useful as an argument, but, it’s always very interesting to study its possible causal link as it could lead to an interesting finding, and then, to an interesting argument.


Note : A causality WILL imply a correlation, in any case.

More : Find on this website funny correlations that will show you how a correlation differs from any cause-effect relation, such as : “US spending on science, space and technology” correlates with “suicide by hanging, strangulation and suffocation”
It also shows how easily graphics can be manipulated to make you believe that two things that have NOTHING in common can be related.

Join us ! Facebook / Twitter
_____________